Inner City Blues
CALL OF THE ANCESTORS
The mission of Call of the Ancestors is to enable African and African Diasporic people to resurrect and maintain recognition, awareness, self-respect and pride of their own history and realization of their own talents, gifts and abilities. As a result of the restoration and cultivation of love for their ancestry, enable the demonstration of how all people, through awareness and respect for themselves, can work for liberation from the bondage and injustice created by slavery, colonization, racial, class and gender inequality throughout the world.
This page will be continually updated. Please check on our progress...
QUOTE OF THE DAY
THE IMPORTANCE OF HISTORY
"True culture provides us with a personal and societal structure that enables the ongoing cultivation of our optimal genetic expression and also ensures that the knowledge gained by the society over time is stored and reused to ensure the continuing cultivation and self-actualization of the next generation."
-TemTi Sahu Ra (2013)
"The lion's share of Africa's astronomical heritage is not locked in silent stones; it exists in still-living and exceedingly rich oral traditions" that pass this knowledge "from mouth to ear."
- Keith Snedegar, African Cosmos Stellar Arts (2012)
"You can't hate the roots of a tree and not
hate the tree. You can't hate Africa and
not hate yourself."
"For hundreds of years, black people have been taught to hate every part of ourselves. We’ve been taught to hate Africa. We’ve been taught to hate dark skin. We’ve been taught to hate dark people. This brainwashing has been consistent and extremely powerful. It leads to violence, a lack of unity and many other detrimental phenomena that have continued to corrupt our souls and destroy our communities."
"Start by re-programming yourself. Re-learn your history so that it’s not filled with European thought. Join causes that relate to the continent of Africa and the African American community. Take the time to study African history and countries from sources other than your public school teacher. When you study who you are and where you came from, you’ll find that your people are greater than you could ever even imagine."
- Malcolm X
WHO ARE YOU?
by Baba Awodele Ifasina
In today's world, most people will answer that question by stating what they do rather than who they are. This is a symptom of a fundamental plague that must be addressed by all humanity: lack of self knowledge. The revolution that will ultimately save the human race, our environment and all the species that inhabit Mother Earth will be purely a personal one. When you travel on a commercial airline, the attendant will tell you what to do in the case of various emergency situations. Should you be required to wear an oxygen mask, you are told to put yours on first before attempting to help others.
The definition of self is eloquently addressed in the Odu Ifa, the sacred scriptures of the Yoruba people of southwest Nigeria.
"One's history, a sacred possession, is tenaciously upheld, guided and protected.
To an outsider, it does not matter if the history is stampeded out of existence,
Made dysfunctional or atrociously abused..."
The consciousness of self is an empowering tool to one's goals and aspirations. And, how one defines 'self' goes a long way in determining, or encouraging, how others would perceive the displayed self. As a child of the '60's, my generation embarked on a search for enlightenment through the use of drugs, which opened our hearts and minds to strive for solutions to centuries of cultural injustice. Unfortunately, drugs don't allow most people to truly transcend the conditions that lead them to seek a 'high' in the first place. A truly balanced state of consciousness can only be found when our bodies, minds and spirits exist in the natural state of sobriety. It is impossible to return to the innocence of childhood that once enabled us to transcend virtually anything of this world. The adult alternative to youthful naivete' is the heightened sensitivity and awareness of embracing moderation as a higher good. However, we must exercise caution, as even moderation, taken to an extreme, can be negative. As the saying goes, "Everything in moderation, including moderation."
Some forty years ago, an elder once told me something that rang so true, I remember it to this day. "In order to know where you're going, you need to know where you're coming from." History has always been a mandatory subject in school curriculums in America. Although the USA prides itself on being a multi-cultural society, the scope of the study of history in its school systems is woefully mono-cultural, focusing primarily on Europe.
Although African American history has gained some ground in recent years, African history is still, for the most part, neglected.
"In understanding ourselves, we come to understand the world. In allowing ourselves to heal, we become the healers of the world. May the peace and prosperity we seek be found."
GET TO KNOW YOURSELF
by Baba Awodele Ifasina
A solid education is one of the very few societal factors that impact each and every member of our society and our ability to grow and prosper. Whether we choose to admit it or not, we, the people of the United States of America, are presently engaged in a struggle of epic proportions, the outcome of which will determine the survival of the 'American Dream.' For a lot of us, the dream is quickly morphing into a nightmare and, there are those of us who have historically been denied full access to the basic tools for building that dream since America began.
Even though one is able to see with one eye, seeing with both eyes gives a much wider field of vision and clarity. At one point in American history, it was illegal for slaves and other certain members of American society to receive any type of education. Violation of this law was punishable by unspeakable acts of violence, up to and including death. Sentences were meted out at the hands of unforgiving masters and/or mobs, rather than courts of law, to anyone who dared to participate as a student or teacher. The repercussions of this period of our history set a dangerous precedent that still manifests itself in our current societal practices.
"History shows that it does not matter who is in power...those who have not learned to do for themselves and have to depend solely on others never obtain more rights or privileges in the end than they did in the beginning."The Indianapolis Public Schools (IPS) system has implemented a system-wide curriculum, "The Historic Journey – Yes We Can." It has been mandated and is up and running since the 2011-12 school year. The program is based on the African Centered Education (ACE) concept that stresses cultural competency in educational environments. There is a law in Indiana, Cultural Competency Legislation – Public Law 57-2004, that determines guidelines for teacher training, development of materials concerning cultural competency and the cultural competency component of school plans. Pat Payne, director of multicultural education for IPS (retired), updated me on the basics of the program that puts IPS in the relatively small elite group of schools in the U.S. to have an active ACE curriculum. As a result, I am anxious to help develop a methodology for the community support and continued growth of their innovative program.
Carter G. Woodson (1875 – 1950)
Historian, Author, Educator
African centered education is a program that ideally focuses on allowing all students to achieve academic success while maintaining a positive cultural identity. It facilitates student learning while capitalizing on the students’ own social and cultural backgrounds. One of the most detrimental impacts of the American educational system is the denial of all racial/ethnic groups as distinct cultural entities with unique cultural characteristics. The majority of existing education programs, while focusing on pacing, monitoring of instruction and precise sequencing of objectives, tend to virtually ignore 1) the social or cultural needs of students and/or 2) the attempt to change the students’ social behavior to align with 'mainstream perceptions and behaviors'.
In order to teach students to not only achieve academic success but also maintain a positive identity as a member of their own culture, teachers must develop love, respect and understanding of the students as members of unique cultures. Culture and race are significant factors in students’ academic performance. The classic statement is, "I don’t see color, I see children as children." At one point in my life, I agreed with that old adage. As an African American male, I now realize I was naive and in denial of the institutionalized racism that still confronts me and every person of non-European descent every day in this society.
Uh oh, here comes 'the race card!' I will simply reply with this statement. There comes a time in life when one must concede to one’s weakness, limitation or stark ignorance. Doing that does not mean one is not intelligent or 'guilty of the charges.' It simply means being truthful to oneself. Feigning expertise in a situation when you should be admitting ignorance just might be a bad decision with insurmountable consequences. My advice is to keep an open mind and consider implementing as many strategies and activities as possible '...by any means necessary.' Don’t confine Black History to just February or Hispanic Heritage to Sept. 15 – Oct. 15. Read literature, watch TV/videos/ internet, visit various churches and community centers to develop sensitivity and awareness of other cultures. Let us all pledge to make conscious, sensitive and aware decisions that positively and constructively impact our own life and the lives of our families, friends and communities. May the peace and prosperity we seek be found.
AFRICAN AMERICAN RELIGIONS
(pg. 265) ECHOES OF ANCIENT AFRICAN VALUES by Joseph A. Bailey, II, M. D., F. A. C. S.
THE STORY OF PRIDE
Pride in a spiritual sense is something bad, but in a worldly sense is something good. Biblically, prior of the creation of man, it was pride which motivated Satan, a powerful angel, to set his will against God's (Ezekiel 28:11–19) and become a fallen angel of sin. The Old Testament words for the concept of pride includes, "excellency" or "elevation" to emphasize arrogant behavior. Implied was the idea of the sinful becoming "lifted up" in the balloon wrapping of smoke. Back then, smoke was often associated with fools. Hot air smoke produced from fireplaces was analogous to the "hot air" of the ranting and raving seen in the boastful and the conceited. So "puffed up" did these prideful people become that the delusions and thoughts of grandeur caused them to be considered as today's equivalent of mild paranoid psychotics. The religious dislike of such fools stemmed from them attributing their honors and glory to themselves and failing to recognize those accomplishments were grounded in God and his goodness. In other words, simple pride caused fools to turn away from dependence on God in favor of a sinful self-reliance.
For this reason pride was assigned, in the sixth century, as the first of the "Seven Deadly Sins." When pride becomes exaggerated or assertive or "high," haughtiness (taking advantage of an established position while holding others in contempt) results. When it becomes overbearingly or insultingly superior, it is called superciliousness – the showing of a pompous superiority of disdain (excessive praise) and admiration, vanity (groundless self admiration) is present. Arrogance, an aggressive form of vanity, consists of an offensive exhibition of assumed superiority because of riches, station, learning, achievements, or domination. In order to get the kudos (glory) fools desire and think they deserve, their vanity deliberately claims it and they declare themselves to be the standard and the judge of everybody else. Such arrogance is typically accompanied by insolence – an ill-mannered rudeness (barbaric), impudence (without shame), contempt (despising and labeling their victims as worthless), and abusiveness (treating badly).
Because of individualism and materialism rising to prominence at the end of the European Middle Ages, pride and the other traditional vices started becoming desirable and respectable during the Renaissance. Pride, now based upon "price tag" value appearances, was seen as a favorable expression of individual power, money, and White racial assertion. Also, people paying attention to detail in order to give good and efficient workmanship as well as a delightful finished product was said to be deserving of "proper" pride. Still another expression of pride was the effort required for a tasteful appearance in clothing. The appearance of being well-dressed tended to get a proper estimate of the "price tag" importance of the wearer. Since then, at a deeper level, "proper pride" has come to mean possessing those thoughts of rightness or wrongness that lead to good value judgments. As a result, without comparing ourselves with others, we can lovingly support others (Galatians 6:4), taking pride in their accomplishments as well as our own.
When all of these aspects of a simple prideful attitude, the focus on facade appearance, and the absence of a God notion are placed into the historical setting of Europeans, the "European Renaissance mind" emerges – the mind that created and maintained African American slavery – the mind that produced cruelties unequal in its degree of horror, in its duration, in the number of dark- skinned victims involved, and its lasting effects.
(pgs. 179-180) ECHOES OF ANCIENT AFRICAN VALUES
by Joseph A. Bailey, II, M. D., F. A. C. S.
NO STONE WILL BE LEFT
by Anthony de Mello
When his disciples came to point out to him the buildings of the temple, he answered them "You see all these, do you not? Truly, I say to you, there will not be left here one stone upon another, that will not be thrown down.
Think of a flabby person covered with layers of fat. That is what your mind can become --- flabby, covered with layers of fat till it becomes too dull and lazy to think, to observe, to explore, to discover. It loses its alertness, its aliveness, its flexibility and goes to sleep. Look around you and you will see almost everyone with minds like that: dull, asleep, protected by layers of fat, not wanting to be disturbed or questioned into wakefulness.
What are these layers? Every belief that you hold, every conclusion you have reached about persons and things, every habit and every attachment. In your formative years you should have been helped to scrape off these layers and liberate your mind. Instead your society, your culture, which put these layers on your mind in the first place, has educated you to not even notice them, go to sleep and let other people --- the experts, your politicians, your cultural and religious leaders--- do your thinking for you. So you are weighed down with the load of unexamined, unquestioned authority and tradition.
Let us examine these layers one at a time. First your beliefs. If you experience life as a communist or a capitalist, as a Moslem or a Jew, (or any human-made philosophy)*, you are experiencing life in a prejudiced, slanted way; there is a barrier, a layer of fat between Reality and you because you no longer see and touch it directly.
Second layer; your ideas. If you hold onto an idea about someone, then you no longer love that person but your idea of that person. You see him/her do or say something or behave in a certain kind of way and you slap a label on: She is silly or he is dull or he is cruel or she is very sweet, etc. So now you have a screen, a layer of fat between you and this person because when you next meet him/her you will experience them in terms of that idea of yours even though they have changed. Observe how you have done this with almost everyone you know.
Third layer: habits. A habit is essential to human living. How would we ever walk or speak or drive a car unless we relied on habit? But habits must be limited to things mechanical---not to love or sight. Who wants to be loved from habit? Have you ever sat on a seashore spellbound by the majesty and the mystery of the ocean? A fisherman looks at the ocean daily and does not notice its grandeur. Why? The dulling effect of a layer of fat called habit. You have formed fixed ideas of all the things you see and, when encountering them, it is not them you see in all their changing freshness, but the same dull, thick, boring idea acquired through habit. And that is how you deal with people and with things, how you relate to them: no freshness, no newness, but the same dull, routine (boring) ways produced by habit. You are incapable of looking in other, more creative ways, for, having developed a habit for dealing with the world and with people, you can put your mind on automatic pilot and go to sleep.
Fourth layer: your attachments and your fears. This layer is the easiest to see. Put a thick coating of attachment, of fear (and therefore dislike) on to anything or anyone--- in that very instant you cease to see that person or thing as it really is. Just recall some of the persons you dislike or fear or are attached to and you will see how true this is.
Do you see now how you are in a prison created by the beliefs and traditions of your society and culture and by the ideas, prejudices, attachments and fears of your past experiences? Wall upon wall surrounds your prison cell so that it seems almost impossible that you will ever break out and make contact with the richness of life and love and freedom that lies beyond your prison fortress. And yet the task, far from being impossible, is actually easy and delightful. What can you do to break out? Four things: First realize that you are surrounded by prison walls, that your mind has gone to sleep. It does not even occur to most people to see this, so they live and die as prison inmates. Most people end up being conformists; they adapt to prison life. A few become reformers; they fight for better living conditions in the prison, better lighting, better ventilation. Hardly anyone becomes a rebel, a revolutionary who breaks down the prison walls. You can only be a revolutionary when you see the prison walls in the first place.
Second, contemplate the walls, spend hours just observing your ideas, your habits, your attachments and your fears without any judgment and condemnation. Look at them and they will crumble.
Third, spend some time observing the things and people around you. Look, but really look, as if for the very first time, at the face of a friend, a leaf, a tree, a bird in flight, the behavior and mannerisms of the people around you. Really see them and hopefully you will see them afresh as they are in themselves without the dulling, stupefying effect of your ideas and habits.
The fourth and most important step: sit down quietly and observe how your mind functions. There is a steady flow of thoughts and feelings and reactions there. Watch the whole of it for long stretches of time the way you watch a river or a movie. You will soon find it so much more absorbing than any river or movie. And so much more life-giving and liberating. After all, can you even be said to be alive if you are not even conscious of your own thoughts and reactions? The unaware life, it is said is not worth living. It cannot even be called life; it is a mechanical, robot existence; a sleep, an unconsciousness, a death; and yet this is what people call human life!
So watch, observe, question, explore and your mind will come alive and shed its fat and become keen and alert and active. Your prison walls will come tumbling down till not one stone of the Temple will be left upon another, and you will be blessed with the unimpeded vision of things as they are, the direct experience of Reality.
( pgs.61-67) The Way To Love: The Last Meditations of Anthony de Mello; Doubleday Publishers 1995; ISBN 0-385-24939-X
* added by A.J. Artis for clarity
THE ORDER OF THE COSMOS
- adapted from Egyptian Yoga - Vol. 1 by Dr. Muata Ashby
by Babalawo Awodele Ifasina
Divination is any process of manipulating symbols that can be used to gain insight into yourself and the world around you. Divination is one of the oldest ways used to preserve the wisdom of
various cultures and it continues to be a significant component in the tradition of all major religions of the world today. Taoism uses the I Ching oracle, Judaism utilizes the Kaballah, Islam makes use of the Sufi oracles and Christianity relies on the selection of random verses of the Bible as a form of divination.
By contemplating the stages of growth of an organism, it is possible to gain insight into the eternal cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth that is part of virtually every aspect of Creation.
Divination can be used to show us where we are in that cycle and give guidance that will enable
us to make smooth transitions between the various phases.
Ifa, the divination system of the Yoruba people of southwest Nigeria, is a major component of their way of life. It is a method of spiritual discipline, a system of ethics, a method of developing good character, a holistic approach to ritual and a collection of sacred myths. Ifa itself is based in the mystical awareness of Nature that is called Awo. This is the reason that the practitioners of Ifa are called Awo.
Awo is a Yoruba word that is typically translated to mean “secret”. (Babalawo = Father of the Secrets) There is no English equivalent to the word awo. In traditional Yoruba culture, awo refers to the hidden principles that explain the Mystery of Creation and Evolution or the invisible forces that maintain dynamics and form within Nature. The core of these forces remain secret because they continue to be elusive and not obvious. Due to this fact, these forces can only be perceived by means of direct interaction and participation. Anything which can be known strictly through the intellect is not awo.
FIVE METHODS OF DIVINATION IN IFA
1. FOUR PIECES OF OBI COLA / FOUR COWRIES / FOUR PIECES OF COCONUT
Can be used by initiates and non-initiates as it is Egun being invoked, not Orisa.
2. EIGHT COWRIES
3. SIXTEEN COWRIES (Ogun Awos use additional metal tools)
4. OGBONI SOCIETY
5. DAFA / IKIN & OPELE (used only by Babalawos and Iyanifa)
The mechanics of the Dafa system involves the use of vertical lines to form symbols. It is a binary system just like the digital system for computers. A single vertical line (I) represents the forces of expansion and a double vertical line (II) represents the forces of contraction. These marks are grouped into two sets of quadragrams, which form an octagram. There are a total of 256 different octagrams called Odu. Each Odu contains the oral scripture that make up the majority of the folklore of Awo. Sixteen of the Odu are made up of two quadragrams, right and left, that are identical. These Odu are known as meji, which is the Yoruba word for double or twins. These first sixteen Odu are the primary signs that generate the remaining 240 signs.
All of the Ifa systems of divination used by Babalawo/Iyanifa and Orisha Awo are considered to be direct communication with Spirit Forces. The ability to invoke and make use of Spirit Forces that manifest through divination comes as a result of initiation. Initiation also tempers the head of the initiate so that communication with Spirit is possible without injuring the consciousness of the diviner. Initiation activates and utilizes areas of the brain that are normally inactive. The invocation of Orisa by the uninitiated is not only disrespectful to the tradition of Ifa, but opens the possibility of possession. This can be traumatic and disorienting without guidance from elders who can teach the process of going into trance as an aspect of divination.
Odu is a symbolic map of the energy patterns that create consciousness itself. Through the use of meditation and contemplation, the energy patterns expressed by Odu can guide consciousness to Source and it is this journey that lies at the foundation of awo.
Note: AWO IFA and the Theology of Orisha Divination by Awo Fa’ Lokun Fatunmbi is the primary source of this synopsis.
5 THINGS I LEARNED ...
5 THINGS I LEARNED FROM THE GREAT MALCOLM X
by Dr. Boyce Watkins
Happy birthday Malcolm. Malcolm X, arguably the greatest black man whoever lived (even without being elected to public office), has become a mere afterthought in mainstream American history. His grave site is shameful, and almost none of us know the day he was born. The neglect of Malcolm's legacy makes it clear that America doesn't love him as much as the more digestible Martin Luther King Jr. Being unloved can actually be a good thing. Malcolm was feared by the establishment, and fear can be more powerful than love because sometimes your enemies can respect you more than your friends. The so-called "love" we received via friendly, polite integration has left us consistently disrespected by even our own black politicians. Malcolm taught us how to be truly powerful, which is why White America never programmed you to accept him. To celebrate what Malcolm left us with (much of which has been forgotten), I thought I'd lay out five things I learned from the life of Malcolm X:
1) The Value of True Independence: In our quest for integration, we quickly learned that it's hard to earn respect in a capitalist society when you aren't prepared to be self-sufficient. Freedom is not the same as independence: A man can be free to do whatever he wants, but if he's not independent, he'll end up going right back to his oppressor to get the things he needs in order to survive. That is what millions of black people are doing to this very day - we line up for jobs with companies not owned by us, and wonder why our unemployment rate is double that of White America. Malcolm warned us that this was going to happen, but many of us failed to listen.
2) Self-respect: You don't need anyone to validate you with a fancy job title, a high income or a big house, especially if you must sacrifice your integrity in order to get them. You were already a valuable person on the day you were born. This is an important lesson to remember in a world where even our most powerful black public figures continue to seek mainstream validation in order to feel significant. When your adversary knows that you need him to pat you on the head in order for you to feel good about yourself, then he will always control the limitations of your possibilities.
3) The Necessity for Intelligence and Education: Intelligence and education are not one in the same, but both serve as armor for people of color in a world that is designed to destroy them. The worst thing that any man or woman can do is walk away from education, because when you do that, you are walking right into the grasp of slavery. Not only do black people need to embrace education, we must demand educational excellence from our children, where they pursue academic achievement with as much passion as they have when chasing after tickets to the next Lil Wayne concert. In addition to being formally educated, young people should be taught to seek knowledge from independent sources and to engage in critical thinking. If you can't formulate your own opinion about the world, someone is always happy to give your opinion to you.
4) The Importance of Spiritual and Physical Health: This isn't something you get from eating and consuming the food and ideas being fed to you by the descendants of your historical oppressors. Every day, your mind and body are being polluted by music teaching black men to murder one another, food that makes you obese, and media images designed to turn you into a greedy, selfish, capitalistic coon (see "Niggaz in Paris" as a case-in-point). It is critical to rise above this psychological poison, for it is essential for our very survival.
5) The Value of True Courage: Capacity, success, wealth, education and power mean almost nothing without the desire to commit to a cause greater than yourself. Part of what made Malcolm every bit as great as Martin Luther King (without all the white American fanfare) is that he figured out that, even in death, he could live forever by injecting the next generation with a spiritual energy that will exist for thousands of years. We are all his children, and he lives through us. His power and vision will live far longer than his physical body ever could.
In fact, Malcolm X will never die.
(Dr. Boyce Watkins is a Syracuse University Professor and author of the forthcoming book, "The RAPP Sheet: Rising Above Psychological Poison.")
AFRICAN HISTORY BOOK LIST
Please check out ‘www.bookfinder.com’ for new and used books for sale
1. "World's Great Men of Color: Asia and Africa, and Historical Figures Before Christ..." Volumes I and II. by J.A. Rogers; Touchstone/Simon and Schuster. 1996. ISBN 0-684-81581-8
2. "Echoes of Ancient African Values" by Joseph A. Bailey II, M.D., F.A.C.S.; Author House 2005. ISBN: 1-4208-4673-6
3. "My Folks Don't Want Me To Talk About Slavery: 21 Oral Histories of Former North Carolina Slaves". edited by Belinda Hurmence; John F. Blair publisher 2005. ISBN 0-89587-039-8
4. "A Different Mirror (for young people): A History of Multicultural America" by Ronald Takaki; adapted by Rebecca Stefoff; Seven Stories Press 2012. ISBN 978 -1- 60980-416-9
5. "A People's History of United States: 1492 - Present " by Howard Zinn; First Perennial Classics 2001. ISBN 0-06-093731-9
6. "A Young People's History of the United States: Volume One and Two" by Howard Zinn: adapted by Rebecca Stefoff; Seven Stories Press 2007. ISBN 1-58322-759-8
7. "Before the Mayflower: A History of the Negro in America 1619 to 1964" by Lerone Bennett, Jr.; Penguin 1966
8. "New Dimensions in African History: The London lectures of Dr. Yosef ben- Jochannan and John Henrik Clarke"; Africa World Press Inc. 1991. ISBN: 0-86543-227-9
9. "My Life in Search of Africa" by John Henrik Clarke; Third World Press 1999. ISBN 0-88378-178-6
10. "Christopher Columbus and the African Holocaust: Slavery and the Rise of European Capitalism" by Dr. John Henrik Clarke; A & B Publishers Group 1994. ISBN 1-881316-14-9
11. "Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy" by George G. M. James ; Africa World Press Inc. 1992. ISBN 0-86543-362-3
12. "Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda" by Noam Chomsky ; Seven Stories Press 2002. ISBN 978-1-58322-536-3
13. "American Negro Slave Revolts" by Herbert Aptheker ; International Publishers 1993. ISBN 0-7178-0605-7
14. "Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome" by Joy DeGruy, Ph.D. ; Joy DeGruy Publications 2005. ISBN 978-0-9852172-0-4
15. “The African-American Atlas: Black History and Culture” by Molefi K. Asante and Mark T. Mattson; Macmillan Publishers USA 1998. ISBN 0-02-864984-2; LCCN 98-25556
16. "The Egyptian Philosophers: Ancient African VoicesFrom Imhotep to Akhenaten" by Molefi Kete Asante, African American Images / Chicago 2000, ISBN:0- 913543-66-7
17. "Keeping Peace: Reflections on Life, Legacy, Commitment and Struggle" edited by Lasana Kazembe, Ph.D . Third World Press / Chicago 2018 . ISBN: 9780883784013
18. "Cheikh Anta Diop and the New Light on African History" by John Henrik Clarke . Brawtley Press 2014 . ISBN 978-1-943138-15-9
19. "Dawn Voyage: The Black African Discovery of America" by Michael Bradley . Eworld Inc. / NY 1992 ISBN: 978-1-61759-003-0
20. "Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays" by Molefi Kete Asante . Africa World Press / NJ 1993 . ISBN: 0-86543-402-6
21. "Not Our President: New Directions from the Pushed Out, the Others, and the Clear Majority in Trump's Stolen America" edited by Haki R. Madhubuti and Lasana Kazembe . Third World Press / Chicago 2017 . ISBN: 978-0-88378-372-6
22. "Ready For Revolution: The Life and Times of Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture)" by Stokely Carmichael with Ekueme Michael Thelwell . Scribner / NYC 2003 . ISBN: 0-684-85003-6
IFA: The Yoruba Way
IFA : The Yoruba Traditional Spiritual System
Please check out ‘www.bookfinder.com’ for new and used books for sale
1. "Introduction to African Religion" (Second Edition) by John S. Mbiti ; 1991 Heinemann International ISBN 978-0-435940-02-7
2. "Yoruba Culture - A Philosophical Account" by Kola Abimbola ; 2006 Iroko Academic Publishers ISBN 1-905388-00-4
3. "Reflections on the Wisdom of Ifa" by Chief FAMA - Aina Adewale-Somadhi ; October 2009 Ile Orunmila Communications ISBN 978-0-9825100-0-1
4. "West African Traditional Religion" by Kofi Asare Opoku ; 1978 FEP International Private Ltd. 123456789S98
5. "Fundamentals of Yoruba Religion: Orisa Worship" by Chief FAMA - Aina Adewale Somadhi ; September 2002. Ile Orunmila Communications ISBN 0-9714949-0-8
6. "The Way To Love -The Last Meditations of Anthony de Mello" ; June 1995 Doubleday/Image Books edition ISBN 0-385-24939-X
7. "Flash of the Spirit: African & Afro-American Art & Philosophy" by Robert Farris Thompson ; August 1984 Random House/Vintage Books edition ISBN 0-394-72369-4
8. "Warrior of the Light - A Manual" by Paulo Coelho ; 2003 Harper Collins ISBN 0-06-1052797-8
9. "The Kybalion: Hermetic Philosophy" by Three Initiates ; Yogi Publication Society. 1912/1940
10. "Good Character" by Joseph A. Bailey II MD, FACS . Trafford USA 2004 . ISBN: 1-4120-4007-8
11. "Cuban Santeria: Walking with the Night" by Raul Canizares, Destiny Books / Vermont 1999 . ISBN; 0-89281-762-3
12. "African Origins of the Major 'Western Religions' " by Yosef A. A. ben-Jochannan . Blac Classic Press / MD . ISBN: 0-933121-29-6
EUROPEAN HISTORY BOOK LIST
1. "DIRT: A Social History as Seen through the Uses and Abuses of Dirt" by Terence McLaughlin . Dorset Press / NY 1971 . ISBN: 0-88029-250-4
2. "A Different Mirror (for young people): A History of Multicultural America" by Ronald Takaki; adapted by Rebecca Stefoff; Seven Stories Press 2012. ISBN 978 -1- 60980-416-9
3. "A People's History of United States: 1492 - Present " by Howard Zinn; First Perennial Classics 2001. ISBN 0-06-093731-9
4. "A Young People's History of the United States: Volume One and Two" by Howard Zinn: adapted by Rebecca Stefoff; Seven Stories Press 2007. ISBN 1-58322-759-8
5 "Christopher Columbus and the African Holocaust: Slavery and the Rise of European Capitalism" by Dr. John Henrik Clarke; A & B Publishers Group 1994. ISBN 1-881316-14-9
6. "Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy" by George G. M. James ; Africa World Press Inc. 1992. ISBN 0-86543-362-3
7. "Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda" by Noam Chomsky ; Seven Stories Press 2002. ISBN 978-1-58322-536-3
The African Bible
by Joseph A. Bailey, II, M.D., F.A.C.S.
"Echoes of Ancient African Values"; Author House 2005; ISBN 1-4208-4673-6
The very first Bible or scroll (from the Papyrus plant) on record produced by man with respect to paying on honor and divine esteem to a "creator of all mankind," says ben-Jochannan, was that of the African people (of the Nile Valley and Great Lakes region of Central, East and Northeast Africa.) It was written in Ta-Merry (Qamt, Kimit, Sais) 3400 years before the Old Testament and more than 4200 years before the New Testament. Originally, this first "Bible" was called "The Book of the Coming Forth by Day and by Night."
When translated from hieroglyph to English by Sir E. A. Wallace Budge of London, England in 1885 A.D., it was renamed "The Book of the Dead."
This was the foundation for all Bibles in use up to today - all written by various men (mainly) and women - all of which were said to be written by God-inspired scribes - all of which have had hundreds of revisions and translations that cover about 2,494 years (from 700 BC to 1973 A.D.). The fundamentals in the first Bible created and developed by indigenous African people became the basic teachings of Judaism and then Christianity.
The background for the Old Testament in the European Bible starts with the African people - called Afrims - who broke away from their blood relatives and migrated into Canaan, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine and elsewhere in 1315 B.C.
These black Egyptians - mainly Africans but also from the Nzima, Ahanta, Ewe and Ga tribes - learned all their religion, myths, legends, concepts and stories from the Egyptians. Once in foreign lands, they so mingled with the indigenous people that the physical features (e.g. skin coloring), language, and culture made them obvious misfits when they returned to Egypt around the time Alexander the Great conquered Egypt. Since the Greeks held Egyptian religion in such high esteem and since the African mulattoes were Greek speaking, the Afrims were asked to use the grand library of Alexandria Egypt to compile, translate, and edit Egyptian religion into a Greek Bible. This started around 400 B.C. and lasted 100 years.
But to disassociate themselves from their Black Egyptian ancestral origins and to establish a name for themselves, they converted all that was Egyptian into their own fictitious story. Following the completion of the Bible ( i.e. the Old Testament for the Greeks), the Afrim scholars went into Europe where they met the Europeans. It was Europeans who gave them the names "Jews" and "Hebrews". This was in the second century B.C. almost 2000 years after Abraham and over 1000 years of living and identifying themselves as an African people. The Hebrew language emerged from a conglomerate of the African languages. Darkwah continues by saying that the biblical ideology, doctrines, and documents were all created by Black Africans in the land of Black people, for Black people. This occurred before the Afrim people introduced these ideas to the Greeks for it to be taken over by Christian Europe. In other words, "All the people of the Bible from Abraham through Jesus were Black people" (Darkwah, 248, 102, 77, 239, 98, 266, 288, 317). Similarly, much of the information in the New Testament is African but significant portions of its presentation was heavily modified by the Aryan influence. The Septuagint version of the Pentateuch, the first Greek version of the Hebrew's distortion of "The Book of the Dead" was written by 72 writers in Alexandria, Egypt into a compilation of 45 books. This version was used by the earliest Greek and Latin church (250-10 B.C.). The Koine Bible version (52–100 A.D.) was the first Christian New Testament Bible and was written in Aramaic, allegedly the language Jesus spoke among the common people of Israel. Darkwah states
(p. 252) Jesus and John the Baptist were from the Assini tribe and both spoke the language of the Akan people.
In 323 A.D., Bishops of Nicene gave a majority vote to the effect that Mary had an "Immaculate Conception" and a virgin Birth of Jesus. As a result, the Black Egyptians Isis and Horus were absorbed into a white skin-depicted Mary and Jesus by the 6th century B.C. The Bishops also declared Jesus Christ to be "God" - The Father, The Son and Holy Ghost" (today's Spirit) says ben-Jochannan. The Koran, he continues, adopted the basic teachings of the Old Testament and the New Testament but with serious modifications. Of the many other Bibles thereafter, the most significant was the King James Bible of 1611 -written by subjects of King James to satisfy conditions set down by himself (e.g. polygamous behavior). Although opposed by the Pope in Rome, this is the Bible most black folk believe to be "the one and only true holy Scripture ... the actual words of God" (meaning Jesus Christ). Ben-Jochannan states that the black clergy and black theologians perpetuate this myth in order to continue manipulating their "flock". The last of 16 versions (point of view) or revision was 1973. Not one of these revisions since the original African Bible has had less than 700 or so errors. Presently, the word "Bible" means a collection of writings, usually sacred to a particular religion and usually regarded as the only authoritative one in its class.
**Darkwah, Nana Banchie; "The Africans Who Wrote The Bible"; Aduana Publishing Co., 2003. ISBN 097019000X